Earlier, the enemies were from across the border. Therefore, safeguarding the international border was crucial. But today security is defined differently. Security now is a necessity from cellular to global levels. The way you define this boundary is the way you define the parameters and then invest resources. Before discussing how technology can assist us in achieving internal security, we need to analyse how to identify and define threat and vulnerability.
We discuss internal security in context of the government because we feel it is the job of the government to deliver security to a citizen. Implementing security is primarily with government institutions but there could be a role of private sector as well.
There are many levels of IT solutions that can be offered to various government and private clients. The choice of solution will largely depend upon maturity level of the client, his budget and internal acceptance.
From conceptualisation to engagement to delivery to maintenance, there are three layers of any IT application. First is the functional layer. Within this layer, capacity building and change management (CBCM) are just given lip service. But CBCM is crucial. The second is the architecture/delivery of solution. The third is the ownership and maintenance of the system.